The Order of Friars Minor (also called the Franciscans, the Franciscan Order, or the Seraphic Order; postnominal abbreviation OFM) is a mendicant Catholic religious order, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. The order adheres to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. The Order of Friars Minor is the largest of the contemporary First Orders within the Franciscan movement.
Francis began preaching around 1207 and travelled to Rome to seek approval of his order from Pope Innocent III in 1209. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans travelled and preached in the streets while boarding in church properties. The extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223. The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions.
The Order of Friars Minor, previously known as the Observant branch (postnominal abbreviation OFM Obs.), is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the Capuchins (postnominal abbreviation OFM Cap.) and Conventuals (postnominal abbreviation OFM Conv). The Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller Franciscan orders (e.g. Alcantarines, Recollects, Reformanti, etc.), completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The Capuchin and Conventual remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Franciscans are sometimes referred to as minorites or greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania, they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers rather to Cistercians.
L'ordre des Frères mineurs (O.F.M.), en latin : Ordo Fratrum Minorum, dont les membres sont couramment appelés franciscains, est un ordre religieux catholique apparu en Italie en 1210 sous l'impulsion de saint François d'Assise.
À l'imitation du Christ, ses membres tentent de vivre une vie de pauvreté et de simplicité évangélique. Insistant sur l'aspect de fraternité dans leur vie, les franciscains ont choisi de s'appeler « frères ». Aujourd'hui, la majorité d'entre eux sont prêtres.
Quatre penseurs ont marqué l'histoire de cet ordre mendiant : saint Bonaventure de Bagnoregio, Roger Bacon, Jean Duns Scot et Guillaume d'Ockham.
The Franciscan monks took various names over the centuries: Franciscans, Capuchins, Conventuals, Observants, Reformed, Discalced, Alcantarins and Récollets.
Les moines Franciscains prirent divers noms au cours des siècles: Franciscains, Capucins, Conventuels, Observants, Réformés, Déchaussés, Alcantarins et Récollets.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant Christian religious orders within the Catholic Church. Founded in 1209 by Italian Catholic friar Francis of Assisi, these orders include three independent orders for men (the Order of Friars Minor being the largest contemporary male order), orders for women religious such as the Order of Saint Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis open to male and female members. They adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary. Several smaller Protestant Franciscan orders exist as well, notably in the Anglican and Lutheran traditions (e.g. the Community of Francis and Clare).
Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope did not allow ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans traveled and preached in the streets, while staying in church properties. Clare of Assisi, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares (Order of Saint Clare) of the Franciscans.
The extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223. The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor, previously known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" (formed 1517) and "Capuchins" (1520). The Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as minorites or greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead.
L'histoire des ordres franciscains retrace l'origine et le développement des trois ordres du mouvement franciscain. Fondé sur la pensée et les actions de François d'Assise, ce mouvement monachique est connu pour les idéaux de pauvreté et de fraternité qu'il véhicule. Si les franciscains sont principalement vus à travers l'ordre principal des frères mineurs ou celui des capucins, des ordres féminins et un ordre laïque appartiennent également à ce courant. L'ordre des frères mineurs apparaît en 1209. Son développement est très rapide et le mouvement devient l'un des courants monachiques les plus influents au Moyen Âge. Si l'ordre des frères mineurs a progressivement perdu la place dominante qu'il occupait au Moyen Âge, le mouvement franciscain reste vivace à travers les époques, notamment grâce à la fondation de nouveaux ordres, et continue d'influencer profondément la société. Par exemple, l'abbé Pierre et le père Joseph, dont les actions ont profondément marqué la société française moderne, furent tous deux capucins.
Convent of Saint Clare
This convent became the home of Saint Clare of Assisi and her followers in 1212. Work was carried out to provide buildings for this religious community. The Sisters stayed until Clare's death in 1253 when it was thought too dangerous to remain and it was exchanged with the Canons of San Rufino for the chapel of San Giorgio. The convent is open free of charge to the public. Downstairs off the cloister is the refectory in its original state. A fresco in the refectory recalls the visit of Pope Gregory IX when he asked Clare to bless the loaves, which is said to have resulted in crosses appearing on the loaves. Upstairs is St. Clare's Oratory where the Blessed Sacrament was kept, and next to this is the dormitory. A cross marks the place where Clare died on 11 August 1253
San Damiano is a church with a monastery near Assisi, Italy. Built in the 12th century, it was the first monastery of the Order of Saint Clare, where Saint Clare built her community.
The church has a hut-shaped façade; the entrance is preceded by a short portico with three round arcades supported by brickwork pillars. Above the central arch is a circular rose window. The interior has a single nave with ogival barrel vaults. The right wall is home to a rectangular chapel with, at the altar, a wooden crucifix executed by Innocenzo da Petralia in 1637. The nave ends with a deep apse with a modern stone altar, a Baroque wooden tabernacle and the choir.
According to Franciscan sources, a miracle in which Saint Francis' heard an exhortation from Christ occurred in 1205 in this church:
One day out in the countryside to meditate. Finding himself near San Damiano, which threatened ruin, old as it was, driven by the impulse of the Holy Spirit, he entered to pray. Kneeling in prayer before the image of the Crucifix, he was invaded with great spiritual consolation and, as he affixed his tearful eyes on the cross of the Lord, with the ears of his body he heard a voice descend to him from the cross and say three times Francis, go and repair my church which, as you see, is all in ruins!. On hearing that voice, Francis remained astonished and trembling, being in the church alone and, perceiving in his heart the power of divine language, felt kidnapped of his senses. Finally returning to his senses, he girded himself to obey and concentrated everything on the mission to repair the church of walls, although the divine word was referring principally to the Church which Christ purchased by his blood, as the Holy Spirit had made him understand and how he later revealed to his fellow brothers.
Afterwards, Saint Francis took action to physically repair the structure of the San Damiano church, although he eventually realized that God's message to him was to restore the entire Catholic Church as a whole body rather than literally repair one stone structure. The San Damiano cross which was said to speak to Francis currently hangs in the Basilica of Saint Clare in Assisi.
Other artworks in the church include a 14th-century Madonna with Child between Sts. Damian and Rufinus fresco, located in the apse.